Lettuce life stage classification from texture attributes using machine learning estimators and feature selection processes

(1) * Sandy Cruz Lauguico Mail (De La Salle University, Philippines)
(2) Ronnie II Sabino Concepcion Mail (De La Salle University, Philippines)
(3) Jonnel Dorado Alejandrino Mail (De La Salle University, Philippines)
(4) Rogelio Ruzcko Tobias Mail (De La Salle University, Philippines)
(5) Elmer Pamisa Dadios Mail (De La Salle University, Philippines)
*corresponding author


Classification of lettuce life or growth stages is an effective tool for measuring the performance of an aquaponics system. It determines the balance in water nutrients, adequate temperature and lighting, other environmental factors, and the system’s productivity to sustain cultivars. This paper proposes a classification of lettuce life stages planted in an aquaponics system. The classification was done using the texture features of the leaves derived from machine vision algorithms. The attributes underwent three different feature selection processes, namely: Univariate Selection (US), Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), and Feature Importance (FI) to determine the four most significant features from the original eight attributes. The features selected were used for training four estimators from Decision Trees Classifier (DTC), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The models trained using DTC and SGD were then optimized as they have hyperparameters for tuning. A comparative analysis among Machine Learning (ML) algorithms was conducted to identify the best-performing model with the given application. The best features were derived from US and FI as they have the same top four features using the DTC estimator optimized with the hyperparameters tuned to max depth having 5, criterion equated to ‘Gini', and splitter was set to 'Best'. The accuracy obtained from cross-validation evaluation resulted in 87.92%. Considering consistency with hold-out validation, LDA outperforms optimized DTC even with lower accuracy of 86.67%. This accuracy of LDA outperformed DTC due to its sufficient fit for generalizing the testing data on classifying lettuce growth stage.


Aquaponics Feature selection Growth stage classification Machine learning Machine vision




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